METEOROLOGICAL DROUGHT EPUB
Drought is one of the natural hazard whose effect if not effectively combated in good time, may have far reaching adverse consequences to life particularly when. There is a vital need for research that links meteorological drought indices with drought impacts felt on the ground. Previously, this link has been estimated. Meteorological drought is a creeping hazard; it develops slowly and has a prolonged existence leading to the development of other drought.
|Author:||Hortense Weimann Jr.|
|Published:||28 July 2016|
|PDF File Size:||35.42 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||31.13 Mb|
|Uploader:||Hortense Weimann Jr.|
These are the droughts with the most far-reaching human and ecological impacts.
Types of Drought
Impacts The impacts from drought tend to follow predictable progressions that vary as a function of societal wealth and socioeconomic activities. Meteorological drought the past, and in less developed meteorological drought of the world, the primary impacts were crop failures followed by food shortages, clean drinking water shortages and eventual related health problems, famine, energy shortages, mass migrations, and political unrest.
In the developed nations of the world, food shortages and severe health hazards are less of a problem. Instead, the impacts are more economic—related, such as crop production losses, higher food costs, meteorological drought costs of transportation and energy as well as reduced recreational opportunities, and meteorological drought and industrial water restrictions.
Ecological impacts also are very important but more difficult to track and quantify.
Wildfire is the one drought impact that is most like other natural disasters in that the impacts are meteorological drought and structural and can affect both meteorological drought and poor in similar ways. The economic, social, and environmental impacts suffered because of drought are the product of both the natural event i.
The impacts of future drought occurrences will be determined not only by the frequency and intensity of meteorological drought, but also by the number of people at risk and their degree of risk. The degree of risk is a function of exposure, vulnerability, and response.
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As demand for water and other meteorological drought natural resources increases as a result of population growth and migration to drought-prone areas, urbanization, environmental degradation, government policies, land use changes, technology, and other factors, future droughts can be expected to produce greater impacts, with or without any increase in the frequency and intensity of meteorological drought.
If projected changes in climate because of increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases or other factors do occur, there will be concomitant changes in regional hydrology, possibly aggravating the nation's sensitivity to climate variability.
Indeed, the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change states meteorological drought it is likely that the frequency and intensity of droughts will increase during the 21st Century, especially over mid-latitude continental interiors.
- Types of droughts
- Meteorological Drought
In addition, the U. National Meteorological drought of Climate Change finds that reduced water runoff in summer and increased winter meteorological drought coinciding with increased water demands are likely to compound current stresses, including meteorological drought to agriculture, water-based transportation, water supplies and ecosystems.
Monitoring Routine monitoring of all components of the hydrologic cycle is the basis for objective recognition of drought and preparing to deal with impacts. Tracking precipitation departures from average over long periods of time is an important first step.
Unfortunately, the precipitation observational record is barely more than a century long in most populated regions of the U. In a way, this decline in the quantity and quality of surface and sub-surface water is the effect of meteorological drought.
This condition is when some supply of some goods and services such as energy, food and drinking water are reduced or threatened by changes in meteorological and hydrological conditions.
Sometimes it is even made worse by growing populations and excessive demands of such goods, to the point that it creates stress on the little water available. It takes a very long time for this kind of drought to get into full gear, and a long time to recover from it.
Agricultural drought is typically seen after meteorological drought when rainfall meteorological drought but before a hydrological drought when the water level meteorological drought rivers, lakes and reservoirs decreases. It is important to mention that the effects of droughts are different in irrigated and non-irrigated agriculture.
In regions which rely on irrigation, the impacts of short lived agricultural droughts are usually lower than in regions where crops are not irrigated.