Heather E.P. Cattell and Alan D. Mead. INTRODUCTION. The Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire. (16PF) is a comprehensive measure of normal-. ABSTRACT. This study was aimed at: (a) developing an instrument for personality assessment according to Cattell's model, in which the 16PF is based on; and. The 16 Personality Factors Questionnaire (16PF). The 16PF (Conn & Rieke, ) was originally constructed in by Cattell, whose factor-analytic research.


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He believed that in order to adequately map out personality, one had to utilize L-Data life records cattell 16 personality factors observationQ data information from questionnairesand T-data information from objective tests.

Cattell used the emerging technology of computers to analyze the list of adjectives through the statistical technique of factor analysis, which seeks to identify constructs that underlie observed variables.

He organized the cattell 16 personality factors of adjectives into fewer than items and asked subjects cattell 16 personality factors rate people whom they knew on each of the adjectives on the list an example of L-data because the information was gathered from observers.

This allowed Cattell to narrow down to 35 terms. Ratings of the 35 terms were factor-analyzed, revealing a 12 factor solution. After the 35 terms were made into self-rating items Cattell found that there were 4 additional factors, which he believed consisted of information that could only be provided through self-rating.

This process allowed the use of ratings by observers, questionnaires, and objective measurements of actual behavior.


Cattell called these global factors. The search resulted in the sixteen unitary traits of the 16PF Questionnaire. These traits cattell 16 personality factors remained the same over the last 50 years of research.

In addition, the 16PF Questionnaire traits are part of a multi-variate personality model that provides a broader framework including developmental, environmental, and hereditary patterns of the traits and how they change across the life span Cattell, The US version of the cattell 16 personality factors was also re-standardized inalong with the development of forms for children and teenagers; versions for the UK, Ireland, France and the Netherlands were re-standardised in Additionally, there is a shortened form available primarily for employee selection and the questionnaire has been adapted into more than 35 languages.

The questionnaire has also been validated in a range of international cultures over time.

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Next they factor-analyzed these numerous primary traits to see if these traits had a structure of their own—i. For example, the first global trait they found was Extraversion-Introversion.

  • Cattell's 16 Personality Factors Test
  • Cattell's Sixteen Personality Factor Model
  • 16PF Questionnaire - Wikipedia
  • Theories of Personality
  • Contributions and Limitations of Cattell's Sixteen Personality Factor Model
  • Trait Approach to Personality

It resulted from the natural affinity of five primary traits that defined different reasons for an individual to move toward versus away from other people see cattell 16 personality factors. They found that there was a natural tendency for these traits to go together in the real world, and to define an important domain of human behavior—social behavior.

Low-scorers tend to be more serious and self-restrained, and to be cautious, unrushed, cattell 16 personality factors judicious. Social Boldness Factor H: Low-scorers tend to be shy and timid, and to be more modest and risk-avoidant.

Theories of Personality | Simply Psychology

Low-scorers tend to be more private and unself-revealing, and to be harder to get to know. Whereas Eysenck based his theory based on the responses of hospitalized servicemen, Cattell collected data cattell 16 personality factors a range of people through three different sources of data.

L-data - this is life record data such as school grades, absence from work, etc.

Q-data - this was a questionnaire designed to rate an individual's personality known as the 16PF.

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